Shapes and Sizes


Personal computers come in wide variety of shapes and sizes. What started as a choice of one—the desktop—has become a broad spectrum that includes “stick” computers, NUCs, ultrabooks, 2-in-1s, and all-in-ones. This article will outline some of those choices, and point out some their strengths and weaknesses.

In the early 80s, IBM and Apple each came out with their ideas of the desktop computer. Even today, with all our other electronics, the idea of a non-portable computer isn’t dead. It is true that many of the functions of a desktop PC are now done by portable devices or purpose-built devices, but for some, there is still a place for the power and expandability of a desktop computer, in their many different forms. I’ll get back to desktops later in this article.

Shortly after the introduction of the desktop came portable computers, the earliest of which I like to call “arm-stretching luggable” (I still have mine from 1983). As technology advanced, these became laptops: portable computing power complete with screen, keyboard, and pointing device. These devices tended to have less computing power, and fewer choices for expanding … but they made up for it in their portability. Today, the power and price of laptops make them a strong contender against most desktops. Ultrabooks are simply fast laptops without the extra bulk of a CD/DVD drive.

Over the years, many attempts were made in the area of “tablet” computers, but it took a while to develop the screen and computing technologies required to achieve this goal. Initially, we were satisfied with the PDA, or Personal Data Assistant, but fast forward 30 years and we now have incredible power at our fingertips. A true tablet has no physical keyboard, so many of today’s tablets are actually “2-in-one”s … a tablet with touchscreen when “undocked” from the keyboard, but a laptop when you have a keyboard attached. This is currently the most popular computer form-factor.

Back in 1984, Apple transitioned to an all-in-one desktop design—called the Macintosh—that merged the desktop with the monitor. We now have the iMac, and many Windows all-in-one computers. The advantage of this design is “fewer cables” at the expense of upgradeability: generally speaking, it is more difficult to upgrade all-in-ones, and there is more to throw away as parts die or become obsolete.

Which brings us back to the desktop. They come in many shapes and sizes themselves. The smallest is called the computer-on-a-stick, or stick computer, that simply plugs into USB for power and HDMI for audio/video … they are hugely underpowered, but have their place in some cases. Next, in terms of size, is the NUC (which stands for Next Unit of Computing) … these can be very powerful, even game-worthy, so there’s a good chance this could be your next desktop computer. Then there are the SFF (Small Form Factor) desktops … these can often have issues around cooling and lack of standards, so beware.

Which brings us back to the good old desktop. Not dead. Only fading away.

How to recognize a scam

Scams have been around since the dawn of time … yes you millennials, even before computers! But computers, and the Internet, due to their complexity and universality, have given scammers huge opportunities to swindle us. And, I am sad to say, they have taken these opportunities and made them into big business.

I will identify some of the approaches that scammers are taking, and say how to recognize a scam.

We can encounter scams via email (spam), web ads (side-bars and popups), malware, cold calls, and support-centres-gone-rogue.

The hardest spam scams to identify are those that appear to be from legitimate sources. Watch out for typos, poor spelling/grammar, incredulous claims/offers, suspicious links, suspicious attachments, and combinations of the above. I got an email (actually 3) from CRA today that passed all the tests, except for the attachment: it had a Word document with active content that I was not about to enable. Suspicious links point to websites not reflected by the link text. Suspicious attachments are file types like ZIP, EXE (executable), JS (JavaScript), or DOC/DOCX (Word). Just opening files of these types can run malicious code on your computer.

Be wary of any phone call or popup that suggests your computer is infected with malware. You should only trust your antivirus (know its name!), or your local technician, to report infections. Do NOT call the number listed on the scam window … ignore the content of that window and either close it (End Task or Force Quit), or reboot to see if it reappears.

I feel I need to explain, again, that there are phone call scams—where they call you—and SCGR (support centers gone rogue) scams—where you called them but they aren’t who they purport to be. Please, please, please … Unless you are getting specific support for a specific issue from a known remote source, do not hand control of your computer over to someone you don’t know!

Please pass this on to your friends, neighbours, and relatives so we can reduce the proliferation of these scams.

Tracking your progress

There are many reasons, and several ways, to track your running or walking progress.

I suppose you could track your runs/walks with pen and paper. You could write date, time, distance on a calendar or in a ledger book. I’m not sure why you would, but you could.

Of all the new technologies we have seen in the past 20 or so years, GPS, or Global Positioning System, is one of the really cool ones. The US government put those 30-or-so satellites up there for their own use, but has made the system freely available to anyone with a GPS receiver. (Interesting fact: Did you know they can selectively turn it off?)

Our civilian use is accurate within a few meters, and helps us to navigate our streets, trails, and oceans. All you need is a GPS receiver with an unobstructed line of sight to four or more satellites for the system to triangulate your position.

Did you also know there is also a Russian system, called Global Navigation Satellite System, or GLONASS, that is also accessible? GPS receivers that combine these two systems have more satellites to choose from, which results in getting a quicker position fix.

There are purpose-built GPSes for marine navigation, street navigation, and trail navigation … but most casual users just use the one in our smartphones. That GPS, combined with any navigation app, can track your car trips, boat excursions, runs, walks, bikes, hikes, just about anywhere.

There are reasons to get purpose-built GPSes. Some are more rugged and more waterproof that your phone, like this one. Some have a larger antenna, like this one. Some are smaller and easier to use on the move, like this one. Some use the GLONASS satellites, like this one. Some have longer battery life, like this one. It is important to note that most purpose-built GPSes are more accurate than the one on your phone.

One question you may have is: Does GPS use data on my phone? The answer is: It depends on the app, and sometimes, how you use it. My wife and I travelled all over New Zealand in November, and I tracked most of it using a free app on an old phone without a cell plan. We had wifi on the bus we were on, so it just collected data and posted it when it had access to wifi. Incidentally, I paid about $3 for the app (GreenAlp Real-Time GPS Tracker) to store that data for 30 days so my family could track us, AND so I could download it all when I got home. IF you use an app like Google Maps, it will use quite a bit of data to load the maps as you move.

As I have mentioned, you can use your phone, or a purpose-built device like this or this, to collect your tracks. A track is a set of times and positions that are stored in a file. Your GPS will collect a position and time-stamp it every so many seconds, or every time you change direction or speed. In order to make the data these devices collect into information that we can use, you need an app or a service that will present it in a useful form.

Most purpose-built devices have their own apps and services that work well with their devices. Garmin, for example, has apps for loading maps onto the device, transferring the collected data to a computer or web-based service, displaying the data on a map, displaying the data in graphs, sharing the data online, and stuff like that.

Phones have a huge assortment of apps for doing the same sorts of things. Just look in the App Store for your iPhone, or Google Play for your Android phone, and you will find hundreds of apps. A few of the most popular ones are MapMyRun, RunKeeper, and Strava. These are great tools for storing, viewing, and analyzing your tracks to see just how far, fast, or high you went. The bonus with these apps are the social and competitive aspects: you can connect with others, see what they are doing, and even compete with them.

Here’s where I can tell you about my watch: Garmin VivoActive HR. I think this is currently the best watch out there, and here are my 10 reasons why:

  1. It is affordable. Some watches are $600 or more, but this one is currently around $300, although on Boxing Day sales last month, they were selling it for $199!
  2. It isn’t huge!
  3. It is waterproof to 50m!
  4. Its battery lasts me all week!
  5. It can track more than a dozen sports! (Ask me later “which sports?”)
  6. It has a heartrate sensor, step counter, stair counter, sleep recorder, and silent alarm!
  7. It can connect to my phone to show me calls, emails, texts, weather, and start/stop music!
  8. It can connect to a Garmin camera to tell it to take pictures or start/stop video!
  9. There are apps available to customize what it can do!
  10. It is really easy to use!

How easy?! Here’s how easy:

I’m going for a run. I press this button to see the list of sports. I press “Run”. I wait a few seconds for the GPS to connect. I press “Go”. While I run, I can view my distance/time/pace, swipe to view lap distance/time/pace, swipe again to view heart rate/HR zone/HR Avg, and swipe again to go back. I usually just leave it on the basic distance/time/pace. When I stop, I press “Stop”. At that point, I can choose to save or delete (or continue). I can review the track right then, or not. The next time I am within 10m of my phone, and my phone is online, it will upload my tracks to my free Garmin account, and I have set it up to also send it to my free Strava account.

That easy!

I have made my Strava account public. Anyone can see the routes I have tracked. If you are interested to see, maybe not what I have done, but what Strava can do … check out the post I put up on the SL TC10K Clinic page a week ago … it shows every run we did during the clinic last year.

Here’s another feature of GPS tracking that you may not have thought of or known about. If you want, you can download someone else’s tracks and follow them yourself. (Fact: the standard format for tracks is called GPX.) I have done this to go on a set of trails I’m not very familiar with: download someone else’s tracks and follow them. There are even sites setup specifically for this, like

What the world needs is a good GPX editor. I’m sure they’re out there, but I haven’t found the one for me yet. What do you do when you forgot to start your GPS? You’ll want to add some points! What do you do when you forgot to stop your GPS? You’ll want to lop off some points! What do you do when your GPS lost signal or went off-course. You’ll want to edit those points. All doable, it just needs to be easier than it is now.

When I find time, I go to my Garmin or Strava account to bask in my stats. I like to see the routes I have collected, and what’s near them for next time. I like to see the elevations and speeds I have reached. I like to see the total time I have been active, and the kilometers I have put on my shoes or bikes (yes, you can track your equipment too). I like to see what others are doing when they are active, or see who else is tracking their activities nearby.

Here’s a question you may have about technology like this: Does it motivate you to walk or run more? The answer is: For some of us, DEFINITELY!

Jeff has enjoyed running for more than 20 years, but hasn’t missed a TC10K for the past 20 years. He also does a half-marathon or two every year. He has been helping with this clinic for the past 7 years. He is often seen running around this area with his wife, Kate, and/or his dog, Tiggin. He owns and operates his own local business called Teky Technical Services.

Email Clients

In my previous article, I described the different ways of accessing your email: via browser, email app, or email relay.

You can depend on your email provider for all your email needs and just use their web interface to send/receive email. Alternatively, you can use an email client to hold a local copy of those emails and contacts and let you read/write emails “offline”. There are advantages both ways, and it’s important to know how to go both ways should one method fail you. This article simply describes some of your email client options for different platforms.

In the Windows world, there are many choices for email clients … here are six:

  1. All Windows versions, except Windows 7, came with email clients … and some were good
  2. Microsoft also offers Outlook (paid) and offered Windows Live Mail (free, but now retired)
  3. Qualcomm Eudora used to be a solid choice, but was deprecated in 2013
  4. Mozilla Thunderbird (org/thunderbird) has always been, and still is, a solid choice … and, by far, my personal favourite
  5. eM Client (com) and OE Classic ( have both free and paid versions, and are reasonable choices for those who miss the old Outlook Express

All these email clients for Windows are free, except as noted.

In the Mac world, people mostly use the built-in Mac Mail. You can install Thunderbird or others, but most people just don’t.

In the iOS world, most people use the built-in iOS Mail, although there is a Gmail app and a few others available in the App Store.

In the Android world, there are built-in mail tools and dozens of alternatives in the Google Play Store.

In the Linux world, there’s Thunderbird, Evolution, Sylpheed, KMail, Geary, Claws, and others.

There are two email servers I would also like to mention: one that runs under Windows is called MailStore (see, and one that runs on some QNAP NASes, called QmailAgent (see Both products act as a relay, or secondary, mail server … giving you secondary storage and alternative access to the email coming from your email provider. This is useful for businesses that rely heavily on their email, and are concerned about the dependability, accessibility, capacity, or security of their primary email provider.


This month, I’m going to focus on the different ways to get your email.

Your email provider receives email on your behalf and you have two basic choices for how to view it: via app or via browser.

App: email apps (also called email clients) exist in Windows, OS X, Android, iOS, and Linux. They go by names like Outlook, Thunderbird, and Mail. At a minimum, they need to be configured with your email address, email password, and email server name, but sometimes you also need to know protocol (described below), encryption, and port numbers. They are easy to use once they are set up.

Browser: you can receive your email via any browser, as long as you know your email address, password, and webmail address. There is basically no setup, but it can be a bit more cumbersome to use.

A third approach is emerging for those who depend heavily on their email: configure a NAS or server to get your email, then use an app or browser to view it from there or directly from your provider. This way you have a consistent backup of all your email history, and multiple ways to view and organize it.

The common incoming email protocols are POP, IMAP, and Exchange. POP is pretty simple: it downloads email to your computer and optionally deletes it from the server after a given time (immediately, or delayed). IMAP and Exchange are a bit more complex because they leave all email on the server and just synchronize the local copy with it (which is handy if you are getting your email on multiple devices).

Check with your email provider to see which protocols they support, their server names/settings, AND how much email storage they offer. In many cases, you can combine these different approaches … it’s always good to know more than one way to do anything technical.

In my next article, I will list some email clients and a couple of email server approaches.


This shouldn’t have to be said, but there are still some who think they are the only ones struggling with passwords. Let me tell you that you are definitely not alone.

There’s not much that hasn’t been said about passwords. We all know that they should be unique and not recycled, sufficiently long and complex, and changed on a regular basis. But most of us are still struggling to balance those password attributes with the biggest one: recallable.

By recallable, I mean that you can recall it without resorting to a handwritten list or an unencrypted electronic list, which are both strongly frowned-upon.

I would like to believe that we are on the verge of a password-free world where all your devices and services recognize you by face, voice, fingerprint, retina, etc., instead of requiring you to memorize strings of characters. Smartphones have recently made great strides with their fingerprint readers, but that has, so far, failed to progress to apps and services on the smartphones, or to most tablets and personal computers.

Until that day comes, you might consider using a password manager: an app that stores your usernames and passwords in an encrypted form, unlockable by fingerprint or strong password. Most have a good level of encryption, meaning there are no alternative methods of decrypting your list. Some have extra features that make it easy to display or even enter your credentials into apps/sites for you, and some can maintain the same list on all of your devices.

In closing, I will mention a couple of password managers that I have encountered. There are several tools with the unimaginative name “Password Safe”, but only one that was originally designed by Bruce Schneier. Its logo is easily recognizable with its red triangles and diamond, and its home is This tool is truly multi-platform (it is available for Windows, OS X, Android, iOS, and Linux), and there are ways to synchronize your database between your devices. The second one is a relative newcomer: Intel’s “True Key” ( has many of the same features as Password Safe, but in a more refined form. There is, however a price for this refinement … you can store the first 15 passwords for free, but beyond that, it will cost you $19.99/year.

P.S. After writing this article, I encountered a client with only ONE device capable of securely storing her passwords (read: “Dark Ages”). In a case like hers, I might recommend writing down your passwords in a secure location … because, as it was in her case, you might get locked out of your device when you need your passwords.


I must admit … I don’t see the purpose for all the social network sites. I use Facebook as a source of news for what my friends and family are doing. I use Twitter, from time to time, to get quick updates on certain developing events. But that’s about it.

I do, however, see a few purposes for blogging.

Blogging is a good option for connecting with a group of people who often need to coordinate meeting times and places, or simply want to connect on a particular topic. So, you could set up a blog for your hiking group to plan/post where and when your next outing will be. Or you could create or join a group to discuss the implications of media on today’s youth.

Blogging is also a good option for journaling. Whether you are sharing a travel journal with the world, a select group, or simply want a place to put your thoughts so you can refer back to them from any device, anywhere, and any time.

Finally, blogging is a good place to simply share your opinions. If you like to write articles on a specific topics, or a variety of topics, you can put them into a blog and share them with a group, large or small.

The real beauty of blogging is that it doesn’t clutter people’s email inbox or Facebook page. Folks can choose to follow, or not. You can set permissions that allow or prevent posting or commenting by certain groups.

Storage space for blogs is often free, and blogs tend to never expire. On some blogs, users can choose to get notified (or not) if posts or replies are made.

The only downside I see to blogging is, if you open up posting or comments to the public, you are bound to get junk posts and comments.

Back on the upside, you can get special blogging apps, but you can simply remember the URL (web address) and use a standard browser. If you want to try creating a blog, head over to with your Google account. If you just want to try following a blog … oh, you already have! You are reading this on!


Don’t Shoot the Messenger

A dying hard drive is the worst thing that a technician has to deal with, partially because the process is unpredictable, but also because most people don’t have a recent backup. The drive may die quickly or slowly, partially or completely, and it may even die in the technician’s hands … then that technician has the difficult task of explaining to their client why “it is running slowly” turned into “your data is lost”.

Everything in your computer gets stored on a hard drive. Even if you predominantly use cloud storage, your data is still on a hard drive somewhere. That hard drive may be a delicate spinning disk (a traditional hard drive), or it may have no moving parts (a solid state hard drive, or SSD). Many files on your hard drive are easily replaceable, like your operating system and programs; however, unless you have a backup, your data is not easily replaceable.

Diagnosing a dying hard drive can be difficult. Hard drives read and write millions of bits of data every minute, so they’re used to correcting the odd glitch. They do this by using error-correcting algorithms. The result is a medium that works very dependably … slowing down, sometimes imperceptibly, to compensate for a glitch in the process.

Once the technician finds enough clues to decide that the hard drive is dying, it is still not clear how dead it is, or how quickly it is dying. For spinning hard drives, this life may be extended by a few minutes by cooling the hard drive or tipping it at the correct angle, but the best approach to slowing its death is to not use it … but then, that is counterproductive to saving the data on it!

Backing up a dying hard drive has two general approaches: attempt to “clone” the whole drive, or just grab the data. Obviously, if things are going downhill quickly, the latter makes the most sense, but if it looks like there is time, it is nice to clone the whole drive to another drive so the operating system and programs don’t need to be reloaded (assuming the computer will be reused). It should also be pointed out that recovering data from a dying hard drive can take an incredibly long time … sometimes weeks.

If all else fails, and there is no backup of the critical data, there is still the option of using a data recovery service. But know that prices for these “clean room” services start at $500, and they are hit-and-miss.

Morals of the story:

  1. Back up your data regularly
  2. Diagnose small problems before they become big problems
  3. Back up your data regularly
  4. Don’t shoot the messenger when your hard drive dies.

Improvements are on their way

Windows 10 has been out since 29Jul2015, and it has been pretty good in terms of stability, compatibility, and usability. There have been some challenges, but in most cases “10” just needs some tweaks to the defaults and drivers to make it run smoothly.

For example, I think Microsoft made a big mistake when they designed the Windows 10 start menu to resemble the awful Metro screen from Windows 8. This can be adjusted by simply “unpinning” all the “tiles” from your start menu, which only needs to be done once (per user), and only takes a minute.

It seems like Microsoft realizes this now, because their latest Windows 10 update, entitled “Anniversary Update”, corrects this. Goodbye to silly tiles, and hello to a more streamlined start menu. Thankfully, they kept the “Recently Added”, “Most Used”, “Right-Click”, and “type-to-find” features of the start menu. If you don’t know what these last two features are, let me explain.

In most cases, you left-click the start menu to access our full list of Apps and Settings. But, when you need to do the “teky stuff”, you can simply right-click that same start button to get quick access to a “teky” menu. Thank you, Microsoft!

The “type-to-find” feature of the start menu is another nice feature. Simply click the start button (or tap the Windows key on your keyboard), and type part of the name of the app you are looking for. You can quickly find things this way, as long as you know part of the name of the app you are looking for.

The Windows 10 Anniversary Update has been rolling out to Windows 10 PCs since 02Aug2016. How do you know if you have it? Click the start button and see if you get the old start menu (one column of icons plus optional tiles), or the new start menu (one narrow column with 5 icons that only have names when you hover over them, a second column with everything else, and still the optional tiles).

How do you get this update? You can either wait for it to come in with your regular updates, or go get it from

If you are having issues with Windows 10 after an update–such as slowness, freezing, or crashing–you are not alone. As I have mentioned, drivers are often the culprit. The manual process of locating/installing drivers isn’t easy, but there are programs (such as the US$16.95 program Driver Talent) that makes it easy, or contact your local computer technician. Beware of free driver update programs, as they are nearly always rife with spyware.

We have Spreadsheets to thank

Spreadsheets played a huge role in the early days of computing. Experimentation began on “computerized simulations of accounting worksheets” on some mainframe computers in the ‘60s, but it wasn’t until the late ‘70s and early ‘80s that we could get the first spreadsheet program—VisiCalc—on the first personal computers.

As the story goes, once accountants saw what spreadsheets could do, the PC industry sprang to life. As a result, we often call spreadsheet programs the “killer app” of the early days of personal computing.

After VisiCalc came SuperCalc, then Lotus 1-2-3, and finally Excel (to name a few). We all know Excel as part of the Microsoft Office package, which is available for Windows, OS X, and some mobile and online systems. Today, there are many programs that mimic the features of Microsoft Excel, including reading and writing the exact same files. These competitive programs range in price from free to hundreds of dollars, and go by such as names as LibreOffice, OpenOffice, WPS Office, etc. (See Wikipedia for a “Comparison of office suites”.)

What does a spreadsheet program do that makes it so popular?

For those of you not intimately familiar with spreadsheet programs, here’s a gist of what you can do with them:

  • You can enter columns or sheets of information, and sort/filter the data to your heart’s content
  • You can create calculations and “look-up” relationships between cells in the same worksheet or workbook (which is a collection of worksheets)
  • You can then change any of this information and the whole spreadsheet will recalculate based on that new information

Spreadsheets are (arguably) easier to use than databases because all the information (data, calculations, and results) are right in front of you. Calculations can be as simple as “C1 = A1 + B1” … add the first item in column A to column to the first item in column B, and put the result in the first row of column C.

If any of this interests you, get yourself a spreadsheet program and play with it. They all have built-in help screens, plus there is lots of help online by making generous use of search engines.

I like to use spreadsheets to organize lists, calculate gas mileage, and track/balance accounts and expenses. Most spreadsheet programs can then produce charts of all types, based on data in the spreadsheet.